The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as the Harappan Civilization). Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization that thrived in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys, now in Pakistan, along with the northwestern parts of India, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan. It was a Bronze Age civilization and has lasted from 3300 BC to 1700 BC.
In Indus Valley Civilization, the two major city exists i.e. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The both cities emerged approximately 2600 BCE along the Indus river valley in Punjab and Sindh. The Indus Civilization may have had a population of more than five million people Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin).
The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.
Harappa was the first site that was excavated in the 1920s in Indus Valley Civilization. It is now located in Pakistan. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. It is a World Heritage site. The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture.
The Harappa city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied over 100 hectares at its greatest extent during the mature Harappan phase by 2600 BC, Indus Valley Civilization enters into mature stage. The early Harappan communities were turning into large urban centers, like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in Pakistan and Lothal in India. The concept of irrigation had also been introduced. The following features of the Mature Phase were more prominent.
Although the archaeological site at Harappa was damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad, used brick from the Harappa ruins.
Mohenjo-Daro, known as “Mound of the Dead”, is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It was built around 2600 BCE; it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. The city was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. The site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.
Mohenjo-Daro the name derived from Kukkutarma (“the city of the cockerel”). Cockfighting may have had ritual and sabung ayam religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, rather than as a food source. The city has been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens.
Mohenjo-Daro was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. The city was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning. It was around 1900 BCE. Mohenjo-Daro was abandoned.
Culture and Economy:
Indus Valley Civilization was mainly an urban culture sustained by surplus agricultural production and commerce. Both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are generally characterized as having, differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, and fortified administrative or religious centers. The chart weights and measures of the Indus Civilization, on the other hand, were highly standardized, and conform to a set scale of gradations.
Copper and bronze were in use, iron was not yet employed. Cotton was woven and dyed for clothing. Wheat, rice, and a variety of vegetables and fruits were cultivated. A number of animals, including the humped bull, were domesticated, as well as “fowl for fighting”.
Various sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry and figurines in terracotta, bronze, and steatite, etc, have been excavated from the sites of the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Other crafts that have been unearthed include shell works, ceramics, agate, glazed steatite bead making, special kind of combs, etc. There is also evidence of seals, toys, games and stringed musical instruments in the Indus Valley.
The major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley, a crop derived from two-row barley. However, not much information is available on the farmers and their agricultural methods. As many as 400 distinct Indus symbols have been found on seals, ceramic pots and other materials excavated from the Indus Valley.
Typical Indus inscriptions are, at the most, four or five characters in length and quite small. The longest inscription on any object is 26 symbols long. Indus symbols have been found on ritual objects also, many of which were mass-produced.